B2.10.1.3 UK Action


The UK Government has published the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA), which is the first assessment of its kind for the UK and the first in a 5 year cycle. The reports provide an evidence base which will help them better understand the risks, and will inform development of a National Adaptation Programme.


UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

The UK Climate Change Risk Assessment was published on the 25 January 2012. This is the first UK Climate Change Risk Assessment that will be updated in 5 year cycles. The assessment should to allow a better understanding of what climate change means for the UK. The intent being that a programme of adaptation policies will be developed to address those risks.

Further information is available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-climate-change-risk-assessment-2017


The National Adaptation Programme

DEFRA is responsible for developing a National Adaptation Programme to address the risks set out in the first Climate Change Risk Assessment.

The focus of the programme is on helping UK businesses, local authorities and civil society become more resilient to climate change impacts. It will be built around 5 themes:

  • Business and services;
  • Health and wellbeing;
  • Built environment and infrastructure;
  • Agriculture and forestry
  • Natural environment


This will be reviewed every five years to address the most pressing climate change risks to the UK. Government is working with business, Local Government, civil society and public sector organisations to develop this programme.

Further information is available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/climate-change-adaptation


Climate Ready Support Service

The Environment Agency has taken on a new role as the Climate Ready Support Service to help organisations adapt to climate change. This role will build on the work of the UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP), based at Oxford University. The Environment Agency will provide advice and support to key sectors to help them build resilience to climate change.

Further information is available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/adapting-to-climate-change


Department of Energy and Climate Change

In October 2008 The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) was created to manage and combine both Energy and Climate change Policy. The DECC works to ensure that the right legislative framework is in place to meet UK policy objectives which are to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the UK, confirm global commitments to tackle climate change as well as ensuring secure and affordable energy supply.

Further information is available from:




Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC)

The CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme was formerly known as the Carbon Reduction Commitment. The CRC is required under the UK Climate Change Act 2008. It is a mandatory emissions trading scheme that began in April 2010. Around 20,000 organisations in the UK were affected by the new law and 5,000 organisations participated in a Carbon Reduction Commitment League Table.

Any organisation that uses more than 6,000 MWh electricity a year, or with an annual electricity bills of £ 500,000 and over are affected. Organisations that are affected by the CRC have to put together an annual report detailing the exact carbon emissions of the organisation. This report must be very accurate because the Environment Agency will audit and verify one in five company reports.

If an organisation exceeds imposed limits then it must purchase carbon allowances for the company excess from the Government. This requirement came into force from April 2011.

If an organisation does not comply with the CRC, it will be fined for every breach. The fines outlined in the Act are very high and commence at £5,000 for not formulating the report. The fines can run into significant sums depending on the carbon footprint of the organisation!

The CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme is covered in more detail in Section B2.9.


Energy Performance Certificates

Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) are needed whenever a property is:

  • built
  • sold
  • rented

You must order an EPC for potential buyers and tenants before you market your property to sell or rent.

In Scotland, you must display the EPC somewhere in the property, eg in the meter cupboard or next to the boiler.

An EPC contains:

  • information about a property’s energy use and typical energy costs
  • recommendations about how to reduce energy use and save money

An EPC gives a property an energy efficiency rating from A (most efficient) to G (least efficient) and is valid for 10 years.


Buildings that do not need an EPC include:

  • places of worship
  • temporary buildings that will be used for less than 2 years
  • stand-alone buildings with total useful floor space of less than 50 square metres
  • industrial sites, workshops and non-residential agricultural buildings that don’t use a lot of energy
  • some buildings that are due to be demolished
  • holiday accommodation that’s rented out for less than 4 months a year or is let under a licence to occupy
  • listed buildings – you should get advice from your local authority conservation officer if the work would alter the building’s character
  • residential buildings intended to be used less than 4 months a year


Air Conditioning Requirements under EPC:

Any building with an air conditioning unit must conduct inspections.

The Department for Communities and Local Government  document “Improving the energy efficiency of our buildings: A guide to air-conditioning inspections for buildings”, 2008 is available here: Air Con inspections Guide

Air-conditioning inspections promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings and form part of the final implementation in England and Wales of the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings.

This guide describes the scope and requirements of the Regulations applying to air-conditioning plant and provides guidance on who is affected and how these are applied. It is intended for anyone who manages or is responsible for air-conditioning plant. While this guidance aims to explain how the requirements will work in practice.